# Magic Cuts¶

This example explores a system of three fully connected elements \(A\), \(B\) and \(C\), which follow the logic of the Rule 110 cellular automaton. The point of this example is to highlight an unexpected behaviour of system cuts: that the minimum information partition of a system can result in new concepts being created.

First let’s create the the Rule 110 network, with all nodes off in the current state.

```
>>> import pyphi
>>> network = pyphi.examples.rule110_network()
>>> state = (0, 0, 0)
```

Next, we want to identify the spatial scale and main complex of the network:

```
>>> macro = pyphi.macro.emergence(network, state)
>>> print(macro.emergence)
-1.112671
```

Since the emergence value is negative, there is no macro scale which has greater integrated information than the original micro scale. We can now analyze the micro scale to determine the main complex of the system:

```
>>> main_complex = pyphi.compute.main_complex(network, state)
>>> main_complex.subsystem
Subsystem(A, B, C)
>>> print(main_complex.phi)
1.35708
```

The main complex of the system contains all three nodes of the system, and it has integrated information \(\Phi = 1.35708\). Now that we have identified the main complex of the system, we can explore its conceptual structure and the effect of the MIP.

```
>>> constellation = main_complex.unpartitioned_constellation
```

There two equivalent cuts for this system; for concreteness we sever all connections from elements \(A\) and \(B\) to \(C\).

```
>>> cut = pyphi.models.Cut(from_nodes=(0, 1), to_nodes=(2,))
>>> cut_subsystem = pyphi.Subsystem(network, state, range(network.size),
... cut=cut)
>>> cut_constellation = pyphi.compute.constellation(cut_subsystem)
```

Let’s investigate the concepts in the unpartitioned constellation,

```
>>> constellation.labeled_mechanisms
[['A'], ['B'], ['C'], ['A', 'B'], ['A', 'C'], ['B', 'C']]
>>> constellation.phis
[0.125, 0.125, 0.125, 0.499999, 0.499999, 0.499999]
>>> print(sum(_))
1.874997
```

and also the concepts of the partitioned constellation.

```
>>> cut_constellation.labeled_mechanisms
[['A'], ['B'], ['C'], ['A', 'B'], ['B', 'C'], ['A', 'B', 'C']]
>>> cut_constellation.phis
[0.125, 0.125, 0.125, 0.499999, 0.266666, 0.333333]
>>> print(sum(_))
1.474998
```

The unpartitioned constellation includes all possible first and second order concepts, but there is no third order concept. After applying the cut and severing the connections from \(A\) and \(B\) to \(C\), the third order concept \(ABC\) is created and the second order concept \(AC\) is destroyed. The overall amount of \(\varphi\) in the system decreases from \(1.875\) to \(1.475\).

Let’s explore the concept which was created to determine why it does not exist in the unpartitioned constellation and what changed in the partitioned constellation.

```
>>> subsystem = main_complex.subsystem
>>> ABC = subsystem.node_indices
>>> subsystem.cause_info(ABC, ABC)
0.749999
>>> subsystem.effect_info(ABC, ABC)
1.875
```

The mechanism has cause and effect power over the system, so it must be that this power is reducible.

```
>>> mice_cause = subsystem.core_cause(ABC)
>>> mice_cause.phi
0.0
>>> mice_effect = subsystem.core_effect(ABC)
>>> mice_effect.phi
0.625
```

The reason ABC does not exist as a concept is that its cause is reducible. Looking at the TPM of the system, there are no possible states with two of the elements set to off. This means that knowing two elements are off is enough to know that the third element must also be off, and thus the third element can always be cut from the concept without a loss of information. This will be true for any purview, so the cause information is reducible.

```
>>> BC = (1, 2)
>>> A = (0,)
>>> repertoire = subsystem.cause_repertoire(ABC, ABC)
>>> cut_repertoire = subsystem.cause_repertoire(BC, ABC) * subsystem.cause_repertoire(A, ())
>>> pyphi.distance.hamming_emd(repertoire, cut_repertoire)
0.0
```

Next, let’s look at the cut subsystem to understand how the new concept comes into existence.

```
>>> ABC = (0, 1, 2)
>>> C = (2,)
>>> AB = (0, 1)
```

The cut applied to the subsystem severs the connections from \(A\) and \(B\) to
\(C\). In this circumstance, knowing \(A\) and \(B\) do not tell us anything about
the state of \(C\), only the past state of \(C\) can tell us about the future state
of \(C\). Here, `past_tpm[1]`

gives us the probability of C being on in the
next state, while `past_tpm[0]`

would give us the probability of C being off.

```
>>> C_node = cut_subsystem.indices2nodes(C)[0]
>>> C_node.tpm_on.flatten()
array([ 0.5 , 0.75])
```

This states that A has a 50% chance of being on in the next state if it currently off, but a 75% chance of being on in the next state if it is currently on. Thus unlike the unpartitioned case, knowing the current state of C gives us additional information over and above knowing A and B.

```
>>> repertoire = cut_subsystem.cause_repertoire(ABC, ABC)
>>> cut_repertoire = (cut_subsystem.cause_repertoire(AB, ABC) *
... cut_subsystem.cause_repertoire(C, ()))
>>> print(pyphi.distance.hamming_emd(repertoire, cut_repertoire))
0.500001
```

With this partition, the integrated information is \(\varphi = 0.5\), but we must check all possible partitions to find the MIP.

```
>>> cut_subsystem.core_cause(ABC).purview
(0, 1, 2)
>>> cut_subsystem.core_cause(ABC).phi
0.333333
```

It turns out that the MIP is

and the integrated information of ABC is \(\varphi = 1/3\).

Note that in order for a new concept to be created by a cut, there must be a within-mechanism connection severed by the cut.

In the previous example, the MIP created a new concept, but the amount of \(\varphi\) in the constellation still decreased. This is not always the case. Next we will look at an example of system whoes MIP increases the amount of \(\varphi\). This example is based on a five node network which follows the logic of the Rule 154 cellular automaton. Let’s first load the network,

```
>>> network = pyphi.examples.rule154_network()
>>> state = (1, 0, 0, 0, 0)
```

For this example, it is the subsystem consisting of \(A\), \(B\), and \(E\) that we explore. This is not the main concept of the system, but it serves as a proof of principle regardless.

```
>>> subsystem = pyphi.Subsystem(network, state, (0, 1, 4))
```

Calculating the MIP of the system,

```
>>> mip = pyphi.compute.big_mip(subsystem)
>>> mip.phi
0.217829
>>> mip.cut
Cut [0, 4] ━━/ /━━➤ [1]
```

This subsystem has a \(\Phi\) value of 0.15533, and the MIP cuts the connections from \(AE\) to \(B\). Investigating the concepts in both the partitioned and unpartitioned constellations,

```
>>> mip.unpartitioned_constellation.labeled_mechanisms
[['A'], ['B'], ['A', 'B']]
>>> mip.unpartitioned_constellation.phis
[0.25, 0.166667, 0.178572]
>>> print(sum(_))
0.5952390000000001
```

The unpartitioned constellation has mechanisms \(A\), \(B\) and \(AB\) with \(\sum\varphi = 0.595239\).

```
>>> mip.partitioned_constellation.labeled_mechanisms
[['A'], ['B'], ['A', 'B']]
>>> mip.partitioned_constellation.phis
[0.25, 0.166667, 0.214286]
>>> print(sum(_))
0.630953
```

The partitioned constellation has mechanisms \(A\), \(B\) and \(AB\) but with \(\sum\varphi = 0.630953\). There are the same number of concepts in both constellations, over the same mechanisms; however, the partitioned constellation has a greater \(\varphi\) value for the concept \(AB\), resulting in an overall greater \(\sum\varphi\) for the partitioned constellation.

Although situations described above are rare, they do occur, so one must be careful when analyzing the integrated information of physical systems not to dismiss the possibility of partitions creating new concepts or increasing the amount of \(\varphi\); otherwise, an incorrect main complex may be identified.